|Abstract:|| Motivated by the numerical treatment of parametric and stochastic PDEs, we analyze the least-squares method for polynomial approximation of multivariate functions based on random sampling according to a given probability measure. Recent work has shown that in the univariate case and for the uniform distribution, the least-squares method is optimal in expectation in  and in probability in , under the condition that the number of samples scales quadratically with respect to the dimension of the polynomial space. Here optimal means that the accuracy of the least-squares approximation is comparable with that of the best approximation in the given polynomial space. In this paper, we discuss the optimality of the polynomial least-squares method in arbitrary dimension. Our analysis applies to any arbitrary
multivariate polynomial space (including tensor product, total degree or hyperbolic crosses), under the minimal requirement that its associated index set is downward closed. The optimality criterion only involves the relation between the number of samples and the dimension of the polynomial space. We extend our results to the approximation of Hilbert space-valued functions in order to apply them to the approximation of parametric and stochastic elliptic PDEs. As a particular case, we discuss inclusion type elliptic PDE models, and derive an exponential convergence estimate for the least-squares method.
Numerical results conrm our estimate, yet pointing out a gap between the condition necessary to achieve optimality in the theory, and the condition that in practice yields the optimal convergence rate.|