|Abstract:|| Geological faults are three-dimensional volumes, but are represented in oil-industry standard finite difference flow simulators as geometrical discontinuities between cells. This form of representation is necessary because although fault zones occupy a volumetrically insignificant part of an oil reservoir, an adequate volumetric representation of fault zones would require an unfeasibly large number of grid-cells. Instead, various forms of up-scaling have been developed to include faults in flow models of clastic reservoirs. Low permeability fault rock can be included as transmissibility multipliers, and full-field production history-matching results provide support for the algorithm developed to do this. Two-phase fault rock properties (saturation-dependent relative permeability and capillary pressure), and three-dimensional flow paths within fault zones caused by displacement partitioning, can both be key to reservoir performance in certain situations, but are not routinely considered in full-field modelling. In the presentation we will review how faults in clastic sequences are handled in numerical flow simulators in the petroleum industry, and outline approaches designed to improve this.
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